# Quest 0 - Terms and Types

There are three ways of looking at `A : Type`

.

proof theoretically, “

`A`

is a proposition”type theoretically, “

`A`

is a construction”geometrically / categorically, “

`A`

is a space and`Type`

is the category of spaces”.

A first example of a type construction is the function type.
Given types `A : Type`

and `B : Type`

,
we have another type `A → B : Type`

which can be seen as

the proposition “

`A`

implies`B`

”the construction ways to convert

`A`

recipes to`B`

recipes”the space of maps from

`A`

to`B`

, i.e. maps from`A`

to`B`

correspond to points of`A → B`

.internal hom of the category

`Type`

To give examples of this, lets make some types first.

## Part 0 - True / Unit / Terminal object

```
data ⊤ : Type where
tt : ⊤
```

It reads “`⊤`

is an inductive type with a constructor `tt`

”,
with interpretations

`⊤`

is a proposition “true” and there is a proof of it, called`tt`

.`⊤`

is a construction “top” with a recipe called`tt`

`⊤`

is the singleton space`⊤`

is a terminal object: every object has a morphism into`⊤`

given by`· ↦ tt`

In general, the expression `a : A`

is read “`a`

is a term of type `A`

”,
and has interpretations interpretations,

`a`

is a proof of the proposition`A`

`a`

is a recipe for the construction`A`

`a`

is a point in the space`A`

`a`

is a generalised element of the object`A`

in the category`Type`

.

The above tells you how we *make* a term of type `⊤`

.
Lets see an example of *using* a term of type `⊤`

:

```
TrueToTrue : ⊤ → ⊤
TrueToTrue = {!!}
```

enter

`C-c C-l`

(this means`Ctrl-c Ctrl-l`

). Whenever you do this,`agda`

will check the document is written correctly. This will open the`*Agda Information*`

window looking like?0 : ⊤ → ⊤ ?1 : ⊤ ?2 : ⊤

This says you have three unfilled holes.

Now you can fill the first hole.

Navigate to the hole

`{ }`

using`C-c C-f`

(forward) or`C-c C-b`

(backward)Enter

`C-c C-r`

. The`r`

stands for*refine*. Whenever you do this whilst having your cursor in a hole,`agda`

will try to help you.You should see

`λ x → { }`

. This is`agda`

notation for`x ↦ { }`

and is called`λ`

abstraction, think “`λ`

for let”.Navigate to the new hole

Enter

`C-c C-,`

(this means`Ctrl-c Ctrl-comma`

). Whenever you make this command whilst having your cursor in a hole,`agda`

will check the*goal*.The goal (

`*Agda information*`

window) should look likeGoal: ⊤ ————————————————————————— x : ⊤

you have a proof/recipe/generalized element

`x : ⊤`

and you need to give a proof/recipe/generalized element of`⊤`

Write the proof/recipe/generalized element

`x`

of`⊤`

in the holePress

`C-c C-SPC`

to fill the hole with`x`

. In general when you have some term (and your cursor) in a hole, doing`C-c C-SPC`

will tell`agda`

to replace the hole with that term.`agda`

will give you an error if it cant make sense of your term.The

`*Agda Information*`

window should now only have two unfilled holes left, this means`agda`

has accepted your proof.?1 : ⊤ ?2 : ⊤

There is more than one proof (see `Quest0Solutions.agda`

).
Here is an important one:

```
TrueToTrue' : ⊤ → ⊤
TrueToTrue' x = { }
```

Navigate to the hole and check the goal.

Note

`x`

is already taken out for you.You can try type

`x`

in the hole and`C-c C-c`

`c`

stands for cases”. Doing`C-c C-c`

with`x`

in the hole tells`agda`

to do cases on`x`

”. The only case is`tt`

.

One proof says for any term `x : ⊤`

give `x`

again.
The other says it suffices to do the case of `tt`

,
for which we just give `tt`

.

The same”

Are these proofs “the same”? What is “the same”?

(This question is deep and should be unsettling.
The short answer is that they are *internally* but
not *externally* the same.)

Built into the definition of `⊤`

is the way `agda`

can make a map out of `⊤`

into another type `A`

, which we have just used.
It says to map out of `⊤`

it suffices to do the case when `x`

is `tt`

”, or

the only proof of

`⊤`

is`tt`

the only recipe for

`⊤`

is`tt`

the only point in

`⊤`

is`tt`

the only one generalized element

`tt`

in`⊤`

Lets define another type.

## Part 1 - False / Empty / Initial object

```
data ⊥ : Type where
```

This reads “`⊥`

is an inductive type with no constructors”,
with interpretations

`⊥`

is a proposition “false” with no proofs`⊥`

is a construction “bot” with no recipes`⊥`

is the empty spaceThere are no generalized elements of

`⊥`

(it is a strict initial object)

We can make a map from `⊥`

to any other type, in particular into `⊤`

.

```
explosion : ⊥ → ⊤
explosion x = {!!}
```

Navigate to the hole and do cases on

`x`

.

`agda`

knows that there are no cases so there is nothing to do!
(See `Quest0Solutions.agda`

)
Our interpretations:

“false” implies “true”. In fact the same proof gives “false” implies anything (principle of explosion)

One can convert recipes of

`⊥`

to recipes of`⊤`

. In fact the same construction gives a recipe of any other construction since there are no recipes of`⊥`

.There is a map from the empty space to the singleton space. In fact given any space

`A`

, there is a map from the empty space to`A`

.`⊥`

is has a map into`⊤`

. This is due to`⊥`

being initial in the category`Type`

.

## Part 2 - The natural numbers

We can also encode “natural numbers” as a type.

```
data ℕ : Type where
zero : ℕ
suc : ℕ → ℕ
```

Our interpretations are:

`ℕ`

has no interpretation as a proposition since there are “too many proofs” - mathematicians classically don’t distinguish between proofs of a single proposition. (ZFC doesn’t even mention logic internally, but type theory does.) In this sense constructions are*proof relevant*types.As a construction :

`ℕ`

is a type of construction`zero`

is a recipe for`ℕ`

`suc`

takes an existing recipe for`ℕ`

and gives another recipe for`ℕ`

.

Categorically :

`ℕ`

is a natural numbers object in the category`Type`

. This means it is equipped with morphisms`zero : ⊤ → ℕ`

and`suc : ℕ → ℕ`

such that given any`⊤ → A → A`

there exist a unique morphism`ℕ → A`

such that the diagram commutes:

Geometrically :

`ℕ`

is a space with a point`zero`

and for every point`n`

in`ℕ`

, there is another point`suc n`

in`ℕ`

.

To see how to use terms of type `ℕ`

, i.e. to induct on `ℕ`

,
go to Quest 1 - Dependent Types.

## Part 3 - Universes

You may have noticed the notational similarities between
`zero : ℕ`

and `ℕ : Type`

.
The type `Type`

has the following interpretations :

As a construction : any type of construction is a recipe for

`Type`

.Geometrically :

`Type`

is a space of spaces. Each individual point in`Type`

is a space.

This may have lead you to the question, `Type : ?`

.
In type theory, we simply assert `Type : Type₁`

.
But then we are chasing our tail, asking `Type₁ : Type₂`

.
Type theorists make sure that every type
(i.e. anything the right side of `:`

)
itself is a term (i.e. anything on the left of `:`

),
and every term has a type.
So what we really need is

```
Type : Type₁, Type₁ : Type₂, Type₂ : Type₃, ⋯
```

These are called *universes*.
The numberings of universes are called *levels*.
It will be crucial that types can be treated as terms.
This will allows us to

talk about

*predicates*i.e. “propositions depending on a variable”. E.g. the proposition “`n`

is even” depends on a natural number`n`

. See the next quest where we elaborate on this example.reason about “

*structures*” such as “the structure of a group”, to express “for all groups, …”do category theory without stepping out of the theory. (For experts, we have Grothendieck universes.)

reason about when two types are “the same”, for example when are two definitions of the natural numbers “the same”? What is “the same”?